HPC and data analytics share challenges of power, programmability, and scalability to realize their potential. The end of Dennard scaling has made all computing power limited, so that performance is determined by energy efficiency. With improvements in process technology offering little increase in efficiency, innovations in architecture and circuits are required to maintain the expected performance scaling. The large scale parallelism and deep storage hierarchy of future machines poses programming challenges. This talk will discuss these challenges in more detail and introduce some of the technologies being developed to address them.